Baron Gustaf Mannerheim, Marshal of Finland, 1867—1951.

1867 4.6 Born at Louhisaari Manor, Askainen.
1882   Entered the Finnish Military Cadet School at Hamina.
1886 22.7 Dismissed from the cadet school.
1887 14.5 Matriculated as a student from Helsinki Private Lyceum.
1887 14.9 Entered the Nikolaevski Cavalry School, St. Petersburg.
1889 22.8 Promoted to the rank of Cornet (Second Lieutenant) in the 15th Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich's Alexandra Dragoon Regiment in Kalisz, Poland.
1890 13.12 Commissioned to H.M. the Empress Maria Feodorovna's Chevalier Life Guards regiment.
1891 8.8 Transferred to this regiment.
1893 11.9 Promoted to the rank of lieutenant in the guards.
1897 14.9 Detailed for special duties in the administration of the Court Stables, while still attached to the Chevalier Guards regiment.
1899 3.8 Promoted to the rank of Second Captain in the Court Stables.
1897—1901   Sent by the administration of the Court Stables on numerous journeys abroad for the procuring of horses.
1902 19.12 Promoted to Captain of the Court Stables.
1903 11.6 Appointed, while still attached to the Chevalier Guards regiment, as chief of the model squadron on the permanent staff of the cavalry officers' training school.
1904 12.9 Transferred to these duties.
1904 20.10 Transferred to the post of Lieutenant-Colonel of the 52nd Nezhin Dragoon Regiment (from 1907 onwards the 18th Nezhin Hussars).
1904—1905   Took part in the war against Japan.
1905—1906   Acted as assistant to the regiment's commander at Yelets (Government of Orel).
1905 11.12 Promoted to the rank of Colonel (backdated to 4.3.1905).
1905—1906   Represented his family at the last Diet of the Finnish Estates in Helsinki.
1906—1908   Dispatched to Central Asia and China on special duties.
1909 18.1 Appointed Commander of the 13th Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich's Wladimir Uhlan Regiment of the Life Guards at Novominsk (today Nowy Mińsk Mazowiecki), Poland.
1911 12.1 Appointed Commander of His Majesty's Imperial Uhlan Regiment of the Life Guards in Warsaw.
1911 26.2 Promoted to the rank of Major-General.
1912 18.10 Appointed Major-General in the Imperial Retinue, while retaining his position as Commander of the Uhlan Regiment.
1914 6.1 Appointed Commander of the Cavalry Guards Brigade Detachment (Warsaw), while retaining his position as Commander of the Uhlan Regiment (have acted temporarily in this capacity on numerous occasions previously).
1914—1917   Took part in the war against Germany, Austria-Hungary and others.
1915 3.3 Appointed acting Commander of the 12th Cavalry Division.
1915 7.7 Appointed Commander of the division.
1916 24.12 Appointed Commander of the "Wrancza" joint Russian-Romanian Battle Group in the Carpathians.
1917 25.6 Appointed Commander of the VI Cavalry Corps.
1917 8.5 Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General.
1917 4.9 Dispatched on leave from the front.
1917 21.9 Dismissed from his command.
1917 3.10 Transferred to the reserves in the military district of Odessa.
1918 16.1 Received an oral commission from the Senate of Finland to act as Commander-in-Chief of the Finnish Military Forces with the duty of assembling and organizing an army.
1918 26.1 Received this commission in writing.
1918 7.3 Promoted to the rank of Cavalry General (backdated to 28.1).
1918 31.5 Resigned as Commander in Chief.
1918 12.12 Invited to become Regent of Finland.
1918 30.12 Resumed the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Finnish Army.
1919 19.7 Ratified the Finnish Constitution in his capacity as Regent.
1919 30.7 Resigned from the position of Regent of Finland and simultaneously from that of Commander-in-Chief.
1920 4.10 Founded the General Mannerheim Child Welfare League.
1920—1935   Served as chairman of the board of directors of the Union Bank of Finland.
1921—1951   Served as chairman of the central board of the Finnish Red Cross up to the time of his death.
1931 20.3 Appointed chairman of the National Defence Committee, and Commander-in-Chief on the outbreak of war.
1932 6.11 Represented the Finnish government at the ceremony to commemorate the tricentenary of the death of King Gustav II Adolf in Lötzen.
1933 19.5 Promoted to the rank of Field-Marshal.
1936 29.1 Represented the Finnish government at the funeral of King George V in London.
1939 30.11 Appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Finnish Defence Forces and served in this capacity...
1944 31.12 ...until
1942 4.6 Granted the title of Marshal of Finland.
1944 4.8 Elected President of Finland.
1945 3.9 Founded the General Gustaf Mannerheim National Fund, the present-day Mannerheim Foundation.
1946 6.3 Resigned from the post of President of Finland.
1951 27.1 Died in Lausanne, Switzerland (28.1 Finnish time).
1951 4.2 Buried in Hietaniemi Military Cemetery in Helsinki.
Spouse Anastasia Nikolaevna Arapoff, born in Moscow 9.1.1872, died in Paris 31.12.1936, daughter of Major-General and aide-de-camp Nikolai Ustinovich Arapoff, Chief of Police in Moscow, and his second wife Vera Alexandrovna Kazakova.
Anastasia   Born in St. Petersburg 23.4.1893, died in London 19.4.1978. Live as a Carmelite nun in England.
Sofia   Born in St. Petersburg 7.7.1895, died in Paris 8.2.1963. Served as general wreath-binder at the degree ceremony in the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Helsinki in 1919.
Written works
1909   Predvaritelny ochet o poyezdke, predprinyatoi po Vysochaishemu poveleniu cherez Kitaiskii Turkestan i severnya provintsii Kitaya v g. Pekin, v 1906-7 i 8 g.g., polkovnika barona Mannergeima. Izdanie Glavnago Upravlenia Generalnago Shtaba. (Sbornik geograficheskikh, topograficheskikh i statisticheskikh materialov po Azii. Vypusk LXXXI. Voyennaya Tipografia, S.Peterburg 1909.)
1911   A Visit to the Sarö and Shera Yögurs. Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne XXVII (preface signed 10.8.1909 in Helsinki).
1940   Across Asia - From West to East in 1906 1908 I-II. Helsinki: Société Finno-Ougrienne 1940, 741; 256 s. Edited by Kaarlo Hildén translated by Edward Birse. New edition: Oosterhout N.B., Anthropological Publications, 1969.
1940   Tigerjakter i Indien. Fritt efter ett föredrag höllet vid Finlands Allmänna Jägarförbundets årsmöte våren 1937. Finlands Jakt- och Fiske tidskrift, 35:e årgången.
1942   Puhtain asein. Sotamarsalkka Mannerheimin päiväkäskyjä 1918. Med rena vapen. Fältmarskalken Mannerheims dagorder 1918—1942. 1942.
1951—1952   Minnen I-II (Memoirs, translated into Finnish as Muistelmat I-II. Abridged versions published at least in Swedish, Finnish, French, English, German, Estonian, Spanish, Hungarian, Russian, Polish and Romanian).